What is Parkinsonism? »PeopleWhat

Parkinsonism is a condition that occurs when a person experiences symptoms and brain dysfunction, usually related to Parkinson's disease. Or, at the same time, an additional condition is a disease that occurs when there are other symptoms associated with the cause. In addition, the person suffering from Parkinsonism has another disease that causes additional neurological symptoms from dementia to inability to look up and down. Parkinson's disease itself is dysfunctional and cell death of a part of the brain that produces dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that transmits signals between brain and nerve cells and is partially responsible for performing controlled movements in the body.

Symptoms

Symptoms associated with pachinsonism may include muscle stiffness, speech changes, and dementia. According to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, people with Parkinsonism usually begin to develop symptoms anywhere between 50 and 80 years of age. Parkinson's disease can cause variable and progressive symptoms throughout its course, and some of the most common symptoms associated with the disease are:
• Difficulty in showing facial expressions
• Muscle stiffness
• Affected movements slow down,
• Speech changes

• A person with Parkinsonism may experience some of the symptoms listed above, but may not include all of them, especially tremors on the one hand
. This is also because they have an additional disorder that affects the brain's functioning. For example, people with Parkinsonism usually do not have shaking hands that affect many people with Parkinson's disease. Other symptoms associated with Parkinsonism are:
• Dementia
• Problems with the autonomic nervous system, such as controlled movement or spasm problems
• Early problems with balance
• Rapid onset and progression of symptoms
Lewy Each of the underlying causes of Parkinsonism, such as bodily dementia, has its own symptoms.

Causes

Parkinsonism can be caused by Parkinson's as well as another underlying condition. Other causes of Parkinsonism are as follows:
• Corticobasal degeneration: This condition causes dementia and usually affected movements on one side. These people may also not be able to perform controlled muscle movements.
• Lewy body dementia: This situation causes changes in general alertness as well as visual hallucinations. According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, this is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease.
• Multiple system atrophy: This affects coordination and autonomic dysfunction, including bowel and bladder incontinence.
Progressive supranuclear palsy: This condition causes dementia, frequent falls backwards and problems with moving the eyes up and down, in addition to symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
According to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, the above conditions are the most common form of Parkinsonism. There are four reasons. The number of people with these conditions is about a quarter of Parkinson's disease itself. There is another less common condition called vascular parkinsonism. This causes multiple, small strokes that can affect a person's balance, gait and memory.
Parkinsonism is sometimes the result of taking certain medications, and this is called drug-induced Parkinsonism. Examples of drugs that may cause this include aripiprazole (Abilify), haloperidol (Haldol) and metoclopramide (Reglan). Ideally, if a person has drug-induced Parkinsonism, they can slowly reduce the doses of these drugs. However, this may not always be possible and one should not stop taking medication without the consent of his / her doctor. There is no single test for doctors to diagnose Parkinsonism. They begin by taking a person's health history and review their existing symptoms. And they want a list of drugs to determine if there are any drugs that can cause symptoms. The doctor will probably perform a blood test to check for potential underlying causes such as thyroid or liver problems. They may also require imaging scans to examine the brain and the body for other reasons, such as brain tumors.
They may perform a test that monitors the movement of dopamine in the brain, known as the DaT-SPECT test. The test uses radioactive markers designed to monitor dopamine in the brain. This allows the doctor to monitor the release of dopamine in the person's brain and identify areas of the brain that receive or not. Because Parkinsonism does not respond to typical treatments and may have various symptoms, doctors may have difficulty in quickly diagnosing and it may take time to rule out other conditions and initiate treatment recommendations.

Treatments

Levodopa is one of the most commonly used medications . This drug is related to dopamine and may increase the amount of dopamine present in the brain. However, Parkinsonism patients do not only have problems producing dopamine, but also have damaged or destroyed cells that cannot respond to dopamine. As a result, levodopa may not work well to reduce symptoms. Doctors may find it difficult to treat Parkinsonism because the symptoms of the condition do not always respond well or at all to drugs that increase dopamine. For example, if a person has corticobasal degeneration and related muscle spasms, the doctor may prescribe injections of antidepressants and botulinum toxin A (BOTOX). Treatments for Parkinsonism generally aim to help reduce one's symptoms when possible to help maintain independence. Physicians often recommend physical and occupational therapy because they can help a person to keep his muscles intact and improve balance. According to the Parkinson's Disease Clinic and Research Center at the University of California, San Francisco, the survival rate for a person with multiple system atrophy from clinical diagnosis is about 6 years. Life expectancy may be longer or shorter in people with other forms of Parkinsonism. The onset and development of symptoms tend to be much faster than Parkinson's disease alone. However, researchers are working every day to find treatment for Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonism with the hope of improving quality of life and reducing symptoms.

References:
.org
parkinson.org
pdcenter.neurology.ucsf.edu

Author: Jack PeopleWhat

This article was published in English.

PeopleWhat / The Art Of Knowledge

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